understanding management, people management, business management key points

understanding management, people management, business management key points


as a manager you’ll play a few different
roles as I go through the five primary roles think about how you play them over
the course of your work week the first is producer you must produce
the desired results and achieve the organization’s goals through projects
and tasks second is administrator you must
administer systems policies and procedures so that the organization runs
efficiently third is innovator in order to enact
change that serves the organization’s future you’ll need to be creative and
innovative solutions fourth is mediator not only what you
need to help your employees work your conflict
you’ll also mediate any tensions between the employees needs and the
organization’s and fifth is culture builder you must build a work
environment and culture that values its members and supports the organization’s
goals each role requires different skill sets and you may be better at some than
others you want to play to your strengths and develop the areas in which
you still need to grow also think about how you can utilize the strengths of
your people to balance you it also happens that these roles can actually be
in conflict with each other for example administering a policy might actually
limit innovation or an acting change might threaten the current culture part
of being a manager is knowing how to balance these roles and also when to
prioritize one over another this can be confusing because there’s actually two
primary perspectives to consider one is the employees perspective which focuses
on the experience of the people under the manager this is the one we’re all
most familiar with because we’ve all been under a manager at some point in
our careers the other is the organization’s perspective which focuses
on the effective completion of work that drives the organization’s success every
manager must find a way to live at the intersection of these two different and
sometimes competing perspectives let’s take a deeper look I’m going to start
with the organization’s perspective because it really does come first
everyone is employed to help the organization accomplish its goals it’s
also true that the organization’s perspective is what is driven management
style since the 1800s the organization’s perspective includes
several key questions like are the assigned projects and tasks completed
does the work get completed on time and within the allotted budget is the level
of work quality sufficient to accomplish the goals is
the organization protected from lawsuits by compliance with state and federal
laws and regulations does any innovation occur that enhances the organization’s
success does the manager hire and develop employees who make positive
contributions to the organization over time from this list it becomes obvious
that from the organization’s perspective key management skills include project
management time management resource management communication decision-making
people skills and performance management now let’s switch to the employees
perspective the people who report to a manager have several key questions like
are my tasks and responsibilities made clear am i given the training guidance
and resources to complete the tasks are my skill sets effectively used and am i
given opportunities to grow am i treated fairly and with respect can I see that
my contributions make a difference and are they measured accurately and is my
worth accurately assess and valued is there a clear career path for me to
advance and grow and from the employees perspective key management skills
include communication people skills performance management training and
coaching and fairness or ethics there is overlap the employee interaction is in
service of the organization’s goals and the organization provides meaningful
work and fair compensation to the employee to be a successful manager
you’ll need to find a way to artfully navigate the inherent tensions and
opportunities that live between the needs of your employees and the goals of
your organization management styles are the patterns of
behavior people use when they hold management positions these patterns of
behavior include how they communicate make decisions supervise and motivate
there’s a range of management styles and all are a blend of three key behaviors
task Direction decision-making and relationship building task Direction is
when the manager tells the employee what to do as well as when where and how this
may involve teaching and training as well as directives and instructions
decision-making is the extent which the manager involves employees in the
decision making process this exists on a continuum at one end employees have no
involvement at all and at the other end the manager delegates decision-making
completely to the employees relationship building is how the manager forms a
relationship with each employee as well as creates the work environment or
culture for the team as a whole it includes coaching motivating and
engaging employees open communication and respect let me walk through the most
common management styles I’ve coined the first style the director this manager
wants to be in charge so controls all aspects of decision-making they provide
a lot of task direction and are often seen as micro managers directors don’t
engage much in relationship building although they can be cordial
a hallmark phrase is do what I say this autocratic style is appropriate
when employees have very low levels of skill or initiative or when the
organization is in a crisis and needs immediate change however the director
ultimately does harm to the organization because employees are not motivated and
don’t get opportunities to develop the second style is the consultant this
manager still maintains control of decision-making but knows that
relationship building is important so it consults with employees to gain their
input employees can feel more engaged with style
if the consulting is genuine Consultants still provide task direction but allow
low levels of autonomy the phrase for this style is I value your input this
style works well with employees who are growing in their skills or confidence
but not yet to the level where they can handle complex tasks on their own third
you have the consensus builder who manages democratically this manager
genuinely seeks input and feedback from all
they focus on what’s best for the group as a whole so often make decisions based
on majority preference or consensus the phrase here is what do you think the
downside of this style is that they may take too much time seeking input or
ignoring the best decision in favor of the choice that has the most support
fourth you have the coach this manager focuses on creating a highly productive
and motivated staff they provide both training as well as encouragement to
grow they often create a fun and positive work environment with lots of
team-building and social activities the hallmark phrases how can I support you
this style is great for mid to high performers but coaches can stumble if
they have poor performers or difficult employees who don’t respond to their
encouragement the fifth style is the visionary this manager has an exciting
vision and they’re good at inspiring or persuading others to get on board often
they’re great at strategic thinking but not so good with tactical skills this
manager is exemplified by the phrase follow me to thrive under this style
employees need to be independent because they have to figure out the day-to-day
work for themselves the delegator is the sixth style this manager uses a very
hands-off or laissez-faire approach to management they turn over almost
complete control to their team stepping in only when necessary
this style only works well with high-performing employees the phrase
here is you’ve got this delegate errs have to remember that while they may be
able to hand over tasks performance and decision-making they must continue to
build relationships the last style is called the narcissist and it’s actually
the most harmful style with very few redeeming qualities the narcissist
maintains control by providing a lot of tasks direction and no decision-making
the engage in relationship building but only the garner favors or support
abruptly dropping people when it no longer suits their needs this person is
very self-centered but they can still be likeable often even charming but they
rule with an iron fist using punishments from firing – petty
retaliations to keep people in line people under them are in fear so they
cannot speak up or seek help often once this person leaves or is let go a whole
series of shocking information comes to the surface
to know if you have this most toxic kind of boss look for high turnover or a boss
that takes all the credit for their team successes and blames their team for any
failures as you review these Styles think about which Styles you’ve
experienced as an employee what impacted the styles have on your productivity
motivation and loyalty to the organization also consider which style
is most like you we all tend to have a favorite or a natural style that we use
the most you
to be successful as a manager you must learn the art of delegating and it
really is an art because when done right to require some thoughtful analysis and
intentional choices on your part delegation is a very important
interaction that lies at the intersection of three things the
delegator you the delegate the person you’re handing a task to and the
organization that the interaction is housed within delegation is the process
of asking another person to do a task while still maintaining responsibility
for that task it can range from giving someone a simple everyday tasks to
appointing someone as the leader of a complex project appointments can be
short term from minutes to a couple of weeks or long term from a few weeks to
months but delegation is not just about handing off tasks it’s actually a great
opportunity to further motivate and engage your employees by creating
opportunities for their professional development as the manager you’re in the
role of the delegator and you’re instrumental in making the process go
smoothly most people think that there’s only one phase you ask the employee to
do a task and they do it but actually successful delegation is
more complex than that and requires you to be savvy with both project management
as well as people’s skills when I consult with organizations I teach my
four phase model of delegation the four phases are the evaluation handover
support and debrief the phases are linear meaning that you need to complete
one before you go on to the next the first phase is called evaluation in this
phase you assess aspects of the organization your workload and your
employees this will help you determine what can and should be delegated and
whom various projects should be given the goal here is to match up your
employee strengths and opportunities for growth with a project that will help
them further develop unfortunately evaluation is the phase that most
managers skip because they feel pressed for time this can set up a pattern where
managers try to do too many things themselves and then when the workload
gets to be too much dumped tasks on others at the last minute this not only
affects the success of the tasks being done well but can also harm the
relationship between the manager and employees so take the time to do this
phase because it will set you and your team up for success the second phase is
call the handover in this phase the focus is
to communicate clear expectations about the goals of the tasks resources that
will be provided and the timeline you also determine how much autonomy you’re
going to give them a crucial part of this phase is determining and
communicating how much freedom you’re assigning did you know that there’s
actually eight levels of autonomy these levels cover who gathers the information
who makes the decision and who takes the action by far and away the biggest
source of problems in delegation is lack of clarity about which level of autonomy
is being given the third phase is called support in this phase you deliver any
resources or support promised in Phase two this includes granting access to
Authority providing resources and coaching your employee is needed
delivering what he promised builds trust and respect with your employees and
again contributes to the successful completion of the task during the
support phase you also monitor the progress of the employee and the ways
you agreed upon during the handover the final phase in the delegation process is
called the debrief this phase occurs once the task is completed thus ending
the delegation you and the employee meet to discuss the outcome of the task as
well as the process of delegation you discuss things like what issues arose
lessons learned and ideas for improving for the future as you delegate more
proficiently your team will become more effective and efficient in completing
tasks you also gain the benefit of moving some things off your plate which
frees you up to focus time and energy on the projects that require your knowledge
and experience as a manager you have a responsibility
to build others up obviously there’s a business case for doing so helping
others achieve their potential yields all kinds of measurable outcomes that
affect the bottom line like productivity innovation and customer satisfaction I
think it’s important to remember that building others up also reflects well on
you one sign that top executives look for is whose team is thriving and
excelling they know that this indicates a manager that has high potential for
future opportunities as a manager you want to intentionally motivate and
engage your team recent research has clearly demonstrated key factors that
inspire people let’s first look at motivation studies in psychology and
human potential show us that all humans are motivated by three driving forces in
ranking order first need for physical survival and safety this includes the
most basic necessities from air food and water to our more modern versions of
being able to buy a home afford health care and have job security when this
level is tended to we can focus more energy on the second level which is the
need to belong this includes our social needs of having friends and loved ones
and being able to spend quality time with them in addition this level
includes our sense of achievement and competence in professional settings when
this level is 10 to 2 we can then focus on the highest level which is the need
to achieve our full potential humans are drawn to becoming the best
they can be this not only includes personal excellence but also expressing
and appreciating creativity as well as making a difference in the lives of
others in fact compelling research has shown that when the other levels are met
humans are most motivated by having autonomy developing mastery and
contributing to a meaningful purpose now let’s look at engagement engagement is
the level of positive attachment employees feel toward their job and
organization which serves as profound motivator for productivity and growth
studies show that the top causes of employee disengagement are feeling
invisible because efforts are not measured or recognized the job or
workplace is not as expected there’s little to no feedback or coaching and
there’s no access to professional development they’re overworked and
stressed out and there’s lack of trust or confidence in the
senior leaders so engaging employees obviously involves tending to these
issues it’s not just a one-shot deal it’s how they’re treated on a daily
basis this includes hiring people into the right positions making sure job
descriptions match real work expectations providing training and
development and having a performance management process that accurately
measures contributions but the true spirit of engaging employees lives in
the relationships managers build with their people here are some specific
strategies to use for building culture of employee engagement through
individual relationships first get to know your people individually focus on
the whole person and not just their work life learn more about their strengths
skills and their styles for work communication conflict and leadership
learn more about who they are as people through your observations interactions
and discussions consider what you know about their values experiences needs and
priorities second use your one-on-one meetings to not only discuss performance
but aptly support their professional development plans make sure that their
interests and ultimate career goals are a regular part of your check-ins
regularly provide coaching and training to enhance their skills and keep an eye
out for relevant opportunities like being assigned to a project or committee
third use appreciative inquiry to bring out their best appreciative inquiry is
based on the idea that instead of focusing on our flaws or weaknesses you
want to focus on people’s strengths and successes to use appreciative inquiry
you ask a person or a team about their successes times when they’ve really
excelled at something or had a peak performance then you explore what set
that apart the goal is to find ways to translate that success to other
performances finally celebrate successes both large and small do this with
individuals and with the group people are most motivated when they’re moving
towards something and have a sense of their progress rather than having their
failings highlighted when employees feel respected empowered they can face
challenges with a collaborative spirit and positive attitude as a manager
consider how you can use these ideas to motivate and engage your people the
benefits to your organization are numerous establishing trust is an ongoing
practice something you do every day in your words and actions as a manager your
success is dependent on creating an environment where you’re seen as
trustworthy not only by your direct reports but also your supervisors and
your peers so how do you build trust let’s look at the key practices first
have integrity with your words and actions this means that you do what you
said you would you follow through meet deadlines and keep your promises this is
not occasionally but all the time in the rare instances where you cannot deliver
you take responsibility explain why and even apologize when appropriate second
share your values people have to know what you stand for in order to assess if
you have integrity or not study after study shows people assess
trustworthiness based on how well you live in alignment with your values they
can do this faster if they know what your values are interestingly they don’t
have to like or approve your values for you to establish trust third make
ethical choices ethics are another important aspect of integrity how they
differ is that each culture or society has its own laws and norms that
determine what’s considered ethical within that context acting ethically is
about being in alignment with the agreed-upon standards of that community
certainly the workplace has some agreed-upon standards like not
discriminating against people sometimes an industry has a code of ethics like
medicines Hippocratic oath of do no harm and many organizations have their own
code of ethics that they outline and shared values or specific policies and
practices forth sincerely listen to others when you
listen to others without judgement it makes it easier for them to open up in
the future you want to be a place where people can bring their honest concerns
needs priorities and hopes and know that you’ll listen this doesn’t mean that you
have to give them everything they want in fact you often won’t be able to but
if you listen and respond with respect you’ll build trust with every
conversation fifth be accountable for your actions part of managing is taking
risks and making decisions sometimes you’ll be successful and sometimes you
won’t if you blame others make excuses you’ll damage trust and if
you take credit for other people’s work you harm trust too so be accountable for
your actions both good and bad admit your mistakes and be proud of your wins
6th be honest in your communication your word has to mean something this is not
only following through on promises but also that you can be honest about
anything sometimes honesty is hard it means that you offer realistic
assessments frank critiques and clear opinions that can be challenging if you
know the other person won’t like what you have to say or may be hurt by it but
Trust has also built on people knowing that you’ll be honest find ways to
communicate honestly and clearly but also with kindness and empathy it will
make it easier for them to hear what you have to say vii respond to feedback
you’ll be the recipient of feedback and how you handle it is part of building
trust if you get defensive or shoot the messenger
you’re gonna harm trust as a manager you have power in the relationship so you
need to intentionally seek feedback and then make changes
remember people leave a boss not a company before they leave they’ll try
once or twice to give you feedback if you don’t change they’ll start
disengaging as they get ready to leave so take feedback very seriously in fact
intentionally seek it out don’t just wait for people to bring you feedback or
complaints actively seek out their opinions both good and bad about how
things are going and reward honesty when someone has the courage to tell you
challenging news sincerely thank them they’ve actually shown you a great sign
of respect this is all part of making it safe to take risks the last and most
important practice one of the worst things that can happen in work setting
is if there’s a culture of fear when people are afraid they’re obviously not
in trust and even worse you’ve shut down the pathway to creativity and innovation
something that all organizations need to be successful as a manager you need to
create a culture where it’s safe to take risks be open to hearing feedback ideas
that are different from yours also don’t allow your employees to treat
each other poorly and don’t tolerate behavior that undermines safety for
anyone in the organization be clear about how
norman’s issues are handled people feel safer if they trust that the process
will be fair if you consistently focus on building trusts you’ll be able to do
so but the work doesn’t stop there while it takes time to build trust it can be
destroyed overnight one violation on your part can undo months of hard work
so make establishing trust one of your top and ongoing priorities it should be
built on a set of these practices that you use every day how do you feel about conflict it’s
interesting but a lot of people think that conflict is a bad thing something
to be avoided or de-escalated as quickly as possible but conflict is actually a
natural byproduct of both group development and diversity much of
conflict is healthy and contributes to the growth of the individual and the
organization as a manager you’ll find that dealing with conflict is a normal
part of your responsibilities one model that’s very helpful to know is Tuchman
five stages of group development Tuchman did research on groups and his
findings have stood the test of time this model is still taught in today’s
business schools the first stage is called forming this is the time when the
members are introduced to the group and they get acquainted the second stage is
called storming because it’s when conflict arises the group is sorting out
their differences as they try to organize their goals and ideas the third
stage is called norming and this is when group cohesion gets established members
find effective ways to share ideas and the Justins performing is the fourth
stage and the group achieves interdependence members are
self-directed and productive groups can hang out in this four stage for quite a
while but eventually they move into the last stage a journey this is when the
project or group is wrapped up members finish up the task organize reports and
documents and they celebrate their successes as a manager you need to
expect conflict and be comfortable handling it the goal is to know the
difference between healthy conflict and toxic conflict that can do harm you can
identify toxic conflicts by the following people openly use insulting or
demeaning words and actions like name-calling shaming and smearing or
people sabotage or undermine the efforts of another usually behind their back
both of these methods are destructive they not only kill trust but they also
undermine the efforts and goals of the group and organization you should have a
zero-tolerance policy for these kinds of conflict behaviors
however toxic conflict is actually rare and only shows up when people cannot
resolve their differences through more open and healthy means to this end you
want to create an environment where healthy conflict can be embraced here’s
some great questions to ask can you identify what the source of conflict is
for you what are your needs concerns and goals
in this situation are there any hidden agendas vested interests or emotional
attachments at play how would you summarize the other person’s perspective
where are your places of agreement and can you build on those and identify some
possible solutions that would close the gap between your differences remember
the goal is not to prevent conflict but embrace it as a way to help your group
grow and thrive so let’s talk about meetings it’s
important to remember that meetings are still part of the bigger picture of how
you manage people projects and performance so they should align with
your philosophy and style of Management consider meetings as the time and place
where you motivate and engage people with opportunities for autonomy mastery
and purpose let’s get into some specific considerations and strategies for
leading productive meetings I call these the four PS of great meetings first get
clear about the purpose it’s important to know what you hope to achieve by
getting clear on the outcome you’ll avoid scheduling unnecessary meetings
meetings take a lot of forms from one-on-one discussions to team project
meetings to presentations for large groups of people the forum should always
support the purpose consider these questions to help you get clear about
the purpose is this session interactive or involve one-way communication is the
goal to disseminate information to a group of people or have people share
information with each other do you need to work together to identify the source
of a problem and brainstorm solutions will you be engaging in decision-making
and do you need to gain commitment for a course of action next choose the people
obviously invite the people that need to be there to accomplish the purpose not
everyone needs to be in every meeting so be thoughtful about who you invite in
order to prepare you’ll want to think about these issues will the participants
know each other what are their personalities are they likely to be
competitive or collaborative what will distract them and what will they need to
know in order to fully participate third prepare for the meeting as the person
who called the meeting you’re responsible for getting everything ready
this includes several pieces pick the best day time and place that’s most
conducive to accomplishing your goal next create an agenda it allows you to
outline what the meeting will cover and how information will flow it’s best to
use action verbs like a proof and decide if people will be leading or speaking at
various parts of the agenda indicate their names and if you’re worried about
staying on time you can even indicate how many minutes are allotted if your
meeting is part of an ongoing series build in a small portion of time to
discuss past items and future items but leave the majority of time for the
current issues at hand also it’s a good idea to think about the workload of the
meeting open the meeting with something light to get everyone settled and warmed
up then get into the heavy lifting of the meeting where you accomplish the
bigger tasks and end with a wrap-up distribute your agenda to people in
advance allowing ample time if they need to prepare something the fourth P is
designed a process for facilitating the meeting it should align with the outcome
you hope to achieve and the needs of the participants you’ve invited for some of
you your meetings will be governed by Robert’s Rules of Order a formal system
often used in government or board meetings but if not here are some
general guidelines to consider start and end on time this shows that you respect
the participants begin the meeting by reviewing the agenda and doing
introductions if people don’t know each other use some tools to keep the
discussion on track one option is called the bounce-back
if people go off topic acknowledge it and say that’s a great topic for us to
address at another time but let’s refocus on the current discussion some
people like to use the parking lot where you place topics and suggestions that
you want to visit later you may also use the talking clock where you say things
like Lisa will give her report in the next three minutes or we have two
minutes left to discuss this agenda item if you have decisions to make consider
how you’ll vote on them will you use majority wins weighted scoring and will
votes be public or private the most important part of your role is to foster
constructive group participation consider how you can get people engaged
in the process ask open-ended questions like the ones from the clarity coaching
model we discussed in an earlier video throughout the meeting summarize main
points and identify action steps of who will do what and by when conclude the
meeting by having a closing round for comments and follow-up by sending out
notes or minutes directly to members we’re posting online in an appropriate
place meetings are a necessary part of the work world but by using the 4ps
purpose people preparation and process you can create meetings that are both
productive and engaging managing Millennials is a hot topic in
today’s organizations Millennials are the largest generation and as they move
through their life they’re changing all of the major institutions a lot of
research has been done on Millennials more than any previous generation this
is both a good thing and a bad thing all of this attention has certainly helped
us learn more about the different generations which is useful as we shift
to models of management based on engaging and motivating people but it
also brings a false sense of attention to natural workplace dynamics for
example is it a millennial thing to want work flexibility or is that more a
function of chronological age and life stage and sure Millennials have been
shaped by technology in the internet but is that really much different than when
the phone replaced letter writing or cars replaced horses today
Millennials make up 25% of the workplace and this will continue to expand the
front edge you’re approaching mid-career while the back end of the cohort is
entering high school however Millennials are known for many
positive traits including their optimism the ability to multitask and their focus
on achieving goals they were raised on technology and can easily learn new
devices and social media outlets because of the power of the Internet they have a
global worldview a commitment to equality they also care deeply about
making a difference in serving their communities we will also see more and
more Millennials step into leadership roles in fact they’re already there
Millennials hold 1/4 to 1/2 of managerial positions in the US and many
have become entrepreneurs there are a few famous Millennials who are CEOs of
today’s most successful companies Millennials differ in their leadership
style from boomers and Gen Xers Millennials set broad and challenging
targets related to a meaningful purpose they prefer flat reporting structures
and allow a lot of individual freedom they build workplaces that are creative
and inclusive and they actively engage and motivate their people to maximize
the contributions that Millennials can make to your organization consider using
the following strategies first focus on how they can make a difference make sure
you communicate the meaningful purpose your organization serves and how their
role contributes to its success second teen Millennials up with other bright
creative people this transcends age Millennials love working collaboratively
and excel in cross functional relationships they also enjoy being
mentored third give Millennials opportunities to visualize the role they
could play they’re motivated by having a sense of their potential career path so
you can engage them through professional development opportunities fourth harness
their focus on goal achievement they thrive in outcome based environments
where they can set clear goals and measure progress finally have
Millennials mentor others on technology social media and diversity they really
shine in these areas and can help everyone on your team if you make the
right management choices Millennials will help you maximize a wide range of
opportunities that will benefit your organization with today’s technology it’s likely that
you have employees working remotely nearly two-thirds of US companies give
employees workplace flexibility this can range from the colleague who works from
home a few days per year to the employee who permanently lives and works in
another geographic location you may even lead virtual teams with members spread
around the globe a lot of wonderful tools make this all possible
file-sharing and cloud-based tools make it easy for people to work on projects
and documents together without actually being together email instant messaging
and video calls have turned our phones and computers into high-powered
communication devices that can cross continents and time zones while all of
this leads to enhanced productivity it can also lead to some challenges for
today’s manager let’s explore some methods you can use for maximizing the
benefits while mitigating the risks set people up for success with the right
technology remote employees can only be successful if the technology works you
need to outfit your people with the right tools including internet access
computers or laptops and software make sure that they have what they need and
develop a schedule for keeping everything up to date measure work by
deliverables rather than activities since it will be harder for you to
observe people actually working you need to shift your focus to the results of
their efforts focus on outcomes or products this shift should be addressed
in your performance management process in terms of how goals are set and how
and when you measure success focus on communication and inclusion one of the
pitfalls of remote employees if they can miss a lot of the spontaneous
communication that occurs when people gather near the copier or coffee machine
encourage both the local and remote employees to use tools like instant
messaging and video calls to include people in the informal exchanges that
occur every day also consider how you can include your remote employees in the
culture of the organization whenever you have something for the local employees
see how you can create a mirror for your remote people you can certainly include
them in on-site trainings and events by making remote viewing possible but what
about the birthday celebration for a colleague consider bringing a laptop so
they can attend via video or what about the family day at the local zoo send
them tickets to the in their town help them create a healthy
work-life balance research has shown that remote employees tend to put in
more hours than their local peers this is both good and bad news it means that
you don’t have to worry about them goofing off but you do need to worry
that they’ll overwork which can lead to burnout discuss how they’ll monitor
their work time so they don’t overdo it and also have them create a dedicated
workspace so they keep work separate from their home life our home should be
where we go and relax at the end of the work day not a place that reminds us of
work let’s turn our attention to virtual teams where you have several employees
working together from different locations this is also known as
dispersion and there are actually different types of dispersion each type
requires different kinds of guidance or support and some teams are combinations
of several types first you have people that are geographically dispersed this
can be as close as different buildings on a campus two offices scattered around
the world the amount of distance matters as far their distances make it
impossible to just pop by for a face-to-face discussion second you have
temporarily separated teams meaning that people are in different time zones this
often means that work can not occurred synchronously but is always offset by
several hours this can create challenges because all communication is mediated
through written words like email losing valuable nonverbal cues another level of
dispersion is inequality in the configuration for example if you have
four people in one location working with two people in another this can start to
create a clique if you will of the people who work near each other because
they share experiences communication and even culture and of course you have
cultural diversity people from different regions countries cultures and languages
may not produce or perceive work in the same ways the behaviors that indicate
trust and respect in one culture can be offensive than another add to this the
additional barriers of language and then communication mediated through email and
you have a situation that’s right for misunderstandings and conflict the
solution to all of these challenges is communication and training as a manager
you need to provide tools for communication and even set standards for
how and when it should be done dispersed teams benefit from training on
to work in a dispersed environment this should include an opportunity for
members to get to know each other and build trust this goes a long way to
mediating conflict when it does arise also consider appointing someone as the
facilitator of the group process this is separate from the task they’re
accomplishing together this person would keep an eye on the issues we’ve
discussed helping the group successfully navigate the challenges as a manager be
open to learning from your experiences with remote employees and dispersed
teams this will help you make adjustments over time that will improve
the experience for everyone involved you
every day you’ll be making business decisions some of which can have major
implications for your organization not every day has make-it-or-break-it
moments but collectively all of your choices either contribute to or detract
from the success of your people and the organization this is actually the
exciting part of Management you get to have more responsibility and along with
it comes more influence as well decision-making is the ability to
identify and analyze information draw conclusions identify appropriate
solutions and choose a course of action it often requires you to take the
initiative and also innovate new possibilities and opportunities managers
who make good business decisions often have a few key things in common first
they tend to be emotionally intelligent emotional intelligence is how
effectively we manage ourselves and our relationships it’s comprised of 20
competencies including self-control achievement Drive communication and
managing conflict all skills that are needed to make successful decisions
second they actively develop their business acumen all decisions are made
within the context of the organization so being able to accurately read and
navigate the nuances of power and politics are key to successful decisions
business acumen is also knowing the forces that shape your organization and
industry including trends policies technology and people
third they actively seek opportunities to provide leadership as you learned in
the first chapter management and leadership are two different skill sets
while you can keep your focus on the immediate demands of management good
business decisions often require looking forward finally managers who make good
business decisions find the right balance between caution and taking risks
sometimes good decisions are all about timing
you want to take enough time to gather good information and think through
potential consequences but not so long that you miss important opportunities
unfortunately there’s no magic formula for how to do this it’s a judgment call
that’s completely in textual to your organization in the situation at hand
however if you develop the skills and competencies we’ve covered in this video
you’ll be armed with what you need to be successful by taking your time to assess
the situation and think your potential consequences you’ll set yourself up for
success and by collaborating with others in your organization
you can harness their wisdom and gain their support being a manager means you manage a lot
of things we’ve already covered all the ways you’ll manage people in their
performance now we’re going to look at how you manage the business this
includes making decisions overseeing projects complying with key policies and
regulations and also managing the budget the first place we need to start is how
you manage your time being a manager is really a juggling act you must keep a
lot of balls in the air at the same time your first priority is having a method
for managing your time so that you can attend to each of the important things
you oversee without exhausting yourself or burning out I’d like to add the
following tips first really focus on what is true about you managing your
time starts with you and how you and only you interact with time this
includes when you’re at your best for certain types of tasks for example my
mind is sharpest in the morning from 8 to noon that’s the best time for me to
do activities that require a lot of thinking like writing or designing
training sessions another thing to consider is how long you can focus
without a break and how long of a break you need before you’re fresh again there
are no right answers but there are the answers that are true for you second
explore the different components of time management people often think that time
management is just about clocks and calendars but it’s really about managing
all the things that take your time this means that you need to look at managing
your email scheduling your calendar and even files papers and notes third create
a system that supports how you really work once you know more about yourself
choose or design a system that supports you the only criteria is that it helps
you be more focused and effective finally and perhaps the most importantly
learn how to say no or at least not now a big part of managing your time
includes protecting it all the wonderful intentions and systems will go out the
door if you continue to pile things on you’re already full plate so one of your
key strategies is to control the flow of things that you take on this can be
especially challenging if you have a hard time disappointing people I
encourage you to create your own list and practice them out loud until you get
more comfortable saying them that way you’ll be ready when someone is
standing in front of you with a request together all of these strategies will
help you be at your best so you can manage others with style and grace another part of your role as manager is
keeping track of projects both your own and your teams just like managing your
time you’ll want to establish a system for tracking the progress of your
projects because projects involve a lot of people use the strategies we’ve
covered in previous chapters about managing team performance addressing
conflict and having productive meetings again there are a lot of systems and
strategies you can choose from and you’ll want to find something that
supports how you work and meets the needs of your organization there are
some industry standards that may govern your choices such as the scrum model
used with software development and some organizations have invested in certain
procedures or systems thereby determining what you’ll be doing if
that’s the case you’ll want to get up to speed as quickly as you can and make
sure that your team has the training and support they need to use the system
effectively to ultimately project management relies heavily on your
ability to plan and organize work you’ll be orchestrating multiple activities and
establishing courses of action to ensure that work is completed efficiently
project management is also a group effort so you need to find a system that
will meet your team’s needs and that you can all use correctly and consistently
here are key things for you to consider first how are you tracking your projects
you’ll need to quickly and easily identify where any project stands this
includes timing and whether it’s on track to meet milestones and deadlines
second how will you assess the quality of work a project completed on time is
not really an accomplishment if the work is substandard
how can you assess the quality of work and make necessary adjustments third how
do you stay within budget I’ll cover managing budgets in an
upcoming video but part of project management is making sure that your
project is completed within its budget one of the tensions that many managers
face with project management is known as the quality triangle this essentially
states that the quality of a project is a function of three things one how big
the project is or its scope two how much time you have to complete the project
and three the budget you’ve been given or the costs of the project which
includes staffing also known as the triple constraint this triangle
illustrates that most organizations want their teams to produce stuff that is
good fast and sheep the theory of the quality
triangle is that you can only get two of the three if you want it fast and good
it will cost more if you want it fast and cheap then the quality will not be
as good or if you want it cheap and good then it will take longer there’s an
ongoing discussion about the validity of this model between project managers and
the leaders of organizations you may find yourself in the middle of this
discussion so part of project management will require you to not only understand
these elements but communicate effectively about them and that brings
us to communication skills at the heart of project management is your ability to
communicate up and down the organization you’ll need to be able to accurately and
quickly share information to those above and below you often acting as a
translator and mediator as a result you need to become well-versed in speaking
and writing clearly you’ll also need system for tracking communication
knowing when information has been sent and received as well as identifying when
people are not on the same page take the time to learn and hone your project
management and communication skills this will not only set you up for success but
will set you apart from your peers another key aspect of managing the
business includes understanding your role in the budgetary process whether
you work for a small business or a large corporation learning to manage your
budget is a vital skill that you’ll wanna master as early as possible and
here’s why if your team is successful in achieving its goals but always goes over
budget you create financial problems for your organization but your career will
thrive if you’re the manager who stays within their budget and even looks for
ways to reduce costs and drive efficiencies managing the budget means
that you authorize expenses in accordance with the budget that was
submitted and approved and you continually monitor the amount of
spending to ensure that you do not exceed the budget to successfully manage
your budget I recommend using the following strategies first be informed
about financial matters you want to learn about business budgets in general
in your organization in particular there’s some common terms and practices
that are widely used and then there are things that are specific to your
situation for example there are generally two types of budgets for
expenses or money that’s spent capital expenditures are any costs related to
the physical space like rent and electricity and equipment such as
copiers desks and computers these are generally items that are used for more
than a year and the operating budget are the expenses affiliated with the
day-to-day running of the organization such as payroll supplies travel and
professional development organizations also track income or revenue this is the
money that comes in through sales grants and other sources revenue is continually
analyzed comparing predicted income to what actually comes in and adjusting the
budget accordingly this means that in some organizations budgets are very
fluid and can be augmented or cut as the Year unfolds while others are firm and
don’t adjust at all once they’re set most organizations have an annual budget
that is broken down into quarters and then further into months and sometimes
weeks obviously you’ll want to know what is true for the budget you manage and
this is why it’s so important to understand the specifics of your budget
the second strategy you’ll want to ask questions like how much is the budget
what expenses have been predicted and what data was used to predict them is
the budget firm or will it be adjusted if so when and
when do I submit my budget for next year third have a system for tracking your
budget this may already be set up and you just need to learn how to log in and
use the system but if you work at a smaller organization you may be working
from spreadsheets entering receipts as you go the most important thing is to
have a way to know where your budget stands on a month-to-month basis this
might be something that you maintain yourself or delegate to an employee just
remember that you are ultimately responsible for the budget so you still
need to review their work in case they’ve make a mistake believe me it
happens fourth adhere to the policies and procedures at your organization
generally the larger of the organization the more formal and complex the budget
process is there can be a range of approval processes forms to file and
supporting documents to submit in addition if your organization works with
any public funding there will be very specific stipulations about how money
can be spent for example entertainment and travel expenses often have an
elaborate pre-approval process that can take weeks or you may be required to
seek bids from several suppliers through a formal purchasing process when you
manage a budget it’s expected that you adhere to these policies and procedures
whether or not you’re provided training it’s assumed that you will seek out the
guidance you need to be in compliance which brings us to our fifth and perhaps
most important strategy actively seek out training opportunities your
organization might offer formal training on the budget process and if so you
definitely want to take advantage of that if not you can also support your
own success by asking your supervisor or a colleague in the finance department to
walk you through what you need to know there’s some great books on business
management and many community colleges also have business courses available to
the public managing the budget may seem daunting at
first but these strategies will help you become more comfortable and you’ll reap
a side benefit of being a better manager of your own personal funds at home it is vital that you know and understand
various laws and regulations that apply to employment as the manager you play a
very important role in protecting the rights of your employees and mitigating
risk for the organization over the years employment laws have gotten more and
more complex at both state and federal levels and they cover a wide range of
employment related topics including wages hours worked safety and health
standards health benefits retirement and non-discrimination based on a range of
identities such as race sexual orientation national origin and service
in the military and that’s just a few you’ve probably heard of some of the
laws like the Fair Labor Standards Act or the Family and Medical Leave Act but
what about the employing Retirement Income Security Act it governs employee
benefit plans or did you know that whistleblower laws are actually
administered by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration or OSHA and
protects seventeen different employment statuses if you want to blow your mind
just take a stroll through the Department of Labor’s website additional
laws and regulations fall under the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
or EEOC for example laws governing the prevention of sexual harassment mandate
that employers must provide training and have a clear policy for processing
complaints and the Americans with Disabilities Act governs all kinds of
employment issues from recruiting to hiring through training and movement
through the organization if you’re feeling overwhelmed at this point your
normal it can all be very daunting luckily you’re not expected to know all
of this on your own you’ll be helped by your colleagues and Human Resources
depending on the size of your organization this may be one person or
it could be an entire department of professionals well often your HR team
will be internal employees companies also utilize contracted experts to
support HR processes either way you want to pay attention to any information you
receive from HR and also adhere to any requests they make as soon as you can
and thank them too they actually work very hard to make sure that your
organization is not exposed to risks and that you’re not exposed to lawsuits
yourself throughout the year you’ll get many different requests from HR this is
because key legal cases continually affect
compliance means and how and when it should occur there are stipulations
about how and when employees are notified and as the manager you play a
role in that sometimes HR will send you information
via email with an action for you to take that has a deadline sometimes you’ll be
required to attend mandatory training sessions and there’ll be lots of
stipulations around documentation like how you submit payroll or vacation
requests and how you document employee performance issues while these requests
may feel like they detract from your busy work schedule they’re actually some
of the most important work that you do so please take it seriously failure to
respond or act on your part can not only put the organization in jeopardy of
fines and lawsuits it can also affect your career as a manager you’re
responsible for making sure that you and your employees adhere to these various
policies and procedures so take the time to form a positive working relationship
with your colleagues in HR and be the manager they know they can count on I believe that managing performance is
at the heart of the manager’s role so I’ve put the section first because it
will frame the rest of the material in this course we’re first going to explore
what performance management is and then I’ll share some strategies you can use
with your employees performance management is the entire series of
practices policies and procedures that guide and support an employee successful
completion of their work ultimately you’re managing people and completing
work that’s necessary to your organization’s success all of this is
done within the structure of the performance management process you use
and I’m not just talking about the software or system you use for
completing annual reviews although that’s certainly part of it this means
that effective performance management includes and aligns many different
aspects such as the organization’s goals and objectives the organizational values
and culture job descriptions competencies assessment of employee
performance process for developing and motivating employees compensation like
salary and bonuses and making employment decisions such as promotion and
termination ideally all these elements should align to create a cohesive system
that’s clear to all involved and it should provide you the manager with
clear strategies and practices to use during your interactions with your
employees from one-on-one discussions to project meetings to formal annual
reviews no matter your organization’s size or industry today’s work
environment is dramatically different than it was a few years ago more work
straddles multiple departments or customer bases this in turn requires
more collaboration which then necessitates better communication and
more employees are now working remotely or with colleagues and other states or
countries because of the changing nature of today’s business environment many
organizations are realizing that need to revise their performance management
systems so you’ll likely experience a range of models and systems over the
course of your career as a manager you’ll need to utilize the current
system in place at your organization but I think it’s always a good idea for you
to stay informed about best practices in performance management
because it can guide how you implement your
system or even how you advocate for needed change some of my favorite
sources of information are the Human Resources Leadership Council the Society
for Human Resource Management Harvard Business Review and Burson by Deloitte
to be an effective manager I recommend that you use the following strategies
first become informed about your organization’s process for performance
management and do so as early as you can if they offer training attend it right
away many managers wait until they must complete an annual review but that’s
actually 12 months too late performance management is something you
should be doing every week with all of your employees if they don’t offer a
training or if you still have questions make an appointment with the appropriate
person in HR ultimately the performance process offers legal protection to both
employees and the organization the manager is the person responsible for
implementing it appropriately and accurately no pressure or anything
second create your own method for organizing key information consider how
you’ll track and measure each employees progress throughout the year perhaps
design your own forum for one-on-one meetings or agendas for team meetings
that helps you align the day-to-day work with performance management be sure to
explore the features that an online system might offer you or other online
tools that can help you third be transparent with your employees share
with them all you can about the process discuss how and when their performance
will be assessed how you’ll support them in being successful and how it relates
to compensation and career opportunities no employee should ever be surprised
during their annual review I recommend doing this in a group setting so that
everyone hears the same thing at the same time it not only saves you from
repeating yourself it also helps the team know that they’re all held to the
same process and standards in the rest of this chapter we’re going to look at
more parts of the performance management process and how you can use various
tools to maximize your success as a manager true or false your role is someone’s
manager starts their first day of work actually it’s false it begins the minute
you post a position for hire the part that says reports – identifies you as
their supervisor and the person who is responsible for the performance
management process the Job Description outlines important aspects of their
duties and responsibilities and usually includes other key elements of the
performance process such as expected quotations and compensation and it’s
likely that you’ll ultimately participate in interviewing the top
candidates assessing their skills and abilities which will lead to a hiring
decision and a formal offer of employment hiring and onboarding your
employees is the beginning of your professional relationship and you want
to start off strong let’s look at how first make sure you use best practices
in hiring ultimately you want to hire the right person for the job someone who
has the skills to be successful and will grow from the opportunity the hiring
process should be designed to help you assess key aspects of each candidate’s
competence as well as how they’ll contribute to the daily work environment
of your team second follow established procedures and practices if you have an
HR department they’ll likely guide and oversee some aspects of the hiring
process so be sure you attend any training available to you employee laws
have gotten very complex over the years and your colleagues in HR work hard to
help you and other managers be successful but you have to listen to
their guidance one inappropriate question during an interview like are
you married not only opens your organization up to a lawsuit but it can
often cost you a good candidate who might question your competency since you
didn’t know better third put in the time and energy to lead a great hiring
process hiring is a two-way street you’re evaluating the candidate but the
candidate is also seeing if they want to work for your organization
and specifically you take this process seriously I know that you might be busy
but don’t make the mistakes that many managers do which is to treat interviews
as an interruption in their day schedule time to review applications create
thoughtful questions and assess the candidates make sure you come to the
meeting with an attitude of respect and openness after all first
impressions matter on both sides of the desk the hiring process takes time and
energy but consider it an investment in building a great team the more care and
thought you put into the hiring process the more it will pay off down the road
in productive employees and collaborative teams a vital part of any performance
management process is setting goals and tracking progress towards accomplishing
them let’s first talk about choices you have with a performance management
system one best practice and performance management is to have the system
organized around cascading goals at the top they begin with the organization’s
goals or objectives and then waterfall down to the department goals followed by
team and employee goals this allows each person’s individual task performance and
each team’s performance to be measured against how it contributes to the
organization’s success another option is to have two tracks one that focuses on
task performance and one that focuses on career or professional development tasks
performance is about the actions behaviors and competencies needed to
complete the task goal set for the year these are directly tied to the employees
current position and job description and they’re not just to-do lists either they
can include key people skills like communication and collaboration as well
as other competencies needed to do their job effectively these discussions hi
directly to the annual review process career and professional development is
about helping the employee move up to other positions or opportunities in the
future this may include preparing the person for management roles or helping
them develop new skills that position them for parallel careers one of the key
ways to motivate and engage your people is to support their professional
development many organizations build these discussions into the performance
process although they’re separated from the annual review process and
compensation decisions no matter how your performance management process is
organized you’ll use goal-setting as a way to focus and direct actions and
behaviors let’s look at some strategies you can use as a manager to help your
employees with goal-setting first I recommend using the SMART goal
technique where each goal has the following five qualities its specific
meaning that you get clear about the details of who what where and how its
measureable meaning that there’s a clear way to see progress
it’s action-oriented meaning that the employee has the ability to do something
as opposed to it being in someone else’s hands
it’s realistic meaning that it can be accomplished with the time and resources
available and finally it’s timely meaning that it has a clearly stated
deadline possibly with smaller milestones leading up to that deadline
using the SMART goal technique will help you and your employee clearly identify
measurable behaviors that will make it so much easier for you to track progress
you can also break the larger goal into smaller steps aplomb the smart technique
to each one this allows you to take a larger goal and see how it should move
along over weeks or even months second Institute quarterly progress
checks one of the mistakes that managers and employees often make is to set goals
at the beginning of the year and only assess them when it’s time to do the
annual review this not only makes the review process difficult as you wade
back through 12 months it also eliminates the opportunity to make
course corrections if you use the SMART goal technique you should be able to map
goals across time shorter milestones should build to the completion of the
goal when you check in every quarter it gives you and the employee the
opportunity to see which goals are on track and which may be falling behind
then you can strategize solutions for getting back on track before it’s too
late to fix it third when progress stalls identify and
remove the obstacles it’s very likely that progress will stall for each of
your employees in some way when that happens it’s important to take a closer
look at what’s happening because if won’t do much good if you set a new
deadline without addressing the source of the roadblock for example if your
employee has too much on their plate or competing priorities just putting this
gold back on their plate will likely lead to another missed milestone down
the road or perhaps the employee needs something to accomplish the goal such as
information or authority or training you need to provide it if you want to see
progress or it could even be emotional in nature when people procrastinate it’s
often because there’s something about the task that’s not compelling or
motivating you may need to help your employee explore what’s underneath their
resistance so you can address it as a manager you’ll often find that
supporting your employees in achieving their goals also acquires some coaching
skills on your part I certainly have we’re going to cover that in the next
video in the meantime can
how you can utilize these strategies to help your employee set and achieve both
their performance and professional development goals as a manager I have found that coaching
is one of my primary tools for helping employees be at their best however
there’s a lot of confusion about what employee coaching is and how it works
that’s because there’s actually different styles of coaching and
different types of coaching conversations that you can use in a
professional setting so let’s clear that up coaching has evolved from two
important but very different fields and this essentially creates two primary
styles of coaching the first is skill coaching where the coaches expertise is
in the skill and they teach that skill to another person this mode evolved from
athletic coaching where the coach is someone who has extensive experience
with a skill say baseball or swimming and then coaches another on how to
improve that skill it’s a model based on teaching observation and offering advice
tips and strategies it’s intentionally directive and it’s what we naturally
default to as managers the benefits of skill coaching is that it’s often faster
and easier to direct people and it offers the manager a lot of control
about how work is completed the second style is clarity coaching the coach’s
expertise is in the clarity process and they facilitate the other person and
accessing their own answers this mode evolved from the field of life coaching
where the coach is trained in formal coaching skills the coach facilitates
the other person and becoming clear about an issue and uses powerful
questions to help them tap into their own knowledge and expertise the coach
then supports the person’s progress with action plans and accountability this
aisle is intentionally non-directive and the coach must be well-versed in the
techniques of clarity coaching there are three primary benefits of clarity
coaching one it’s a process that’s proven to motivate and engage employees
to behavior change is more likely to stick when they arrive at it on their
own because they become more invested and accountable and three over time you
build employee confidence because they’re more likely to initiate solving
their own problems in the future obviously these two Styles can be at
odds with each other yet both are very powerful tools for employee coaching it
becomes a question of which to use when generally you want to use skill coaching
with new employees who need a lot of guy or employees who are new to a complex
task but as your employees grow and develop you’ll want to shift more and
more often to clarity coaching now let’s look at the four types of coaching
conversations people can have in a professional setting the first is
problem solving this is when the employees have hit a roadblock with a
project or situation and they need help thinking through the issue and possible
solutions second is performance this is used when employees need to improve or
develop a professional skill to do their current job well third is development
this is used with a high-performing employee and is about preparing them for
the next level of skill or responsibility
finally there’s Career Planning this is used to help an employee identify their
long-term career goals and plan for achieving them as a manager you should
be having all four types of conversations with your employees in all
of these conversations skill coaching might take less time but if you want to
build the competence and motivation of your employees you need to be using
clarity coaching more and more of the time like any skill clarity coaching
will get easier if you keep practicing it I’m a big fan of creating a coaching
culture in an organization many studies have been done on the benefits with
return on investment paying off an increased productivity employee
engagement and the effectiveness of leaders you’ll find that employees are
most happy with and loyal to managers who use clarity coaching because they
feel valued heard and empowered so develop your skills today and start
reaping the many benefits that coaching your employees will bring in today’s collaborative work
environments more and more work is being done in teams as a result an important
aspect of performance management includes team performance ultimately you
need to find a way to assess and measure how collaborative work reflects on each
individual employees performance as well as the group as a whole a team is
different from a group of individuals who may form a department or a
cross-functional group specifically to be a team the group must have the
following four qualities number one a common purpose this would be the clear
goal there to achieve number two their efforts must be interdependent otherwise
it’s just coordinated efforts of individual contributors and that’s not a
team number three they must share accountability everyone is held
responsible for the group success or failure and number four the members must
believe that the outcome will be better working together than alone managing a
high-performing team takes effort so plan to spend some time energy on
implementing these strategies this will also help you address the most common
reasons teams fail which are unclear purpose or goals lack of clear plan or
commitment to the plan inability to deal with conflict lack of shared
accountability for results insufficient resources and lack of trust you

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