Mod-01 Lec-04 Communicative Competence – II

Mod-01 Lec-04 Communicative Competence – II


Hello dear students, today we will talk about
Communicative Competence once again. We have talked about this in the last class and there
are still some more things that I want you to know about communicative competence. So, let us first revise what we have done
till now, we had talked about Berlo’s, sender, message, channel, receiver, model, and the
importance of context in communication, in the SMCR model. Through the SMCR model we
come to know how important context is we have also talked about why inter cultural communication
is important in business, we have talked about what makes business dealings especially in
today’s day and age intercultural. We have talked about the things that make
us different from each other, we have talked about the things that make our intra and interpersonal
contexts different from each other, just as a revision intrapersonal context is the context
that I have inside here. My memory, my perceptions what I think about the way I think about things
that is my intrapersonal context, and interpersonal context is the environment that I function
in. So, we have discussed the things in our minds and outside of our bodies within our environments that make us different from each other. We have also talked about whether communication in a business setting can ever be anything,
but intercultural we have discussed the definition of culture, we have discussed the definition
of intercultural. And if you want to term it that way and we have also talked about
I had asked you to think about whether communication in a business setting especially in today’s
day and age can be anything, but intercultural. And this is something that I will not give
you an answer, this is something that I expect you as receivers of this course as listeners
of this lecture to think about yourselves and figure it out for yourselves. I will never
give you answers; because behavioral sciences are interpretive in nature there is never
a plus and minus we function in grey areas. The next thing that we talked about was communicative competence and we discussed interpretive competence, we talked about sizing up situations, we talked
about sizing up people, we talked about sizing up relationships.
We also talked about scripts self monitors high and low self monitors people who like
to adapt themselves to different situations or who like to adjust their behaviors in different
situations, and their ability to do, so in different situations. And those are the self
monitors and we have talked about preconceived notions and how they affect our behavior with
others, and then I had asked you to think about the implications of scripts, preconceived
notions and perceptions of interpersonal relationships, on interpersonal interactions especially at
work. This may seem like a lot of things, but this is something that you have to internalize
as you go along, as a child you start internalizing these things you do not even realize, it and
after going through this course knowing the things that you do I expect you to refine
those internalizations and adjust yourselves to your environment. We talked about interpretive competence as
an explanation of behavior, we talked about we will now talk about attribution theories;
we talked about the interpretive competence as an explanation of the management of the
self and situations. And today we will talk about the explanations of behavior, and how
we explain other people’s behavior, and an important part of this is the attribution
theories. And attribution theories are theories, that are concerned with how the average person
in first the cause of social behavior. Now, attribution theories typically deal with
identifying attribution biases, we really need to find out what we attributes things
to and what are our biases in these attributions. We have a personality bias towards each other
in which we explain other people’s behavior in terms of their personality dispositions,
we say this is the characteristic of a person so and so is an introvert.
So, the person did this, so and so is an extrovert, so the person is very good at talking to people
looking at me looking at me teaching this course you may never believe, that I used
to be an introvert. If my friends view this lecture, if my college friends view this lecture
they will be surprised to see me talking to an audience start I do not even know about
and I used to be labeled as an introvert and people who know me closely know that, I am an introvert, but my students refuse to believe that. So, we attribute peoples behavior the behavior that we see to whatever they we perceive them
to be and the greater the difference there is in their behavior from our expectations
the greater they deviate the greater, their behavior deviates from our expectations the
greater is our personality bias towards them. We feel that this person just does not fit
into the mould that I had, this person just does not fit into that classification that
category of an outgoing person. So, you know, so this person even though the
person is not I mean you know we have certain notion, certain definitions of what a behavior
should look like. An ideal student should be outgoing, an ideal student should be committed
an ideal student should be liking books should be liking the library, and when my students
do not do that I say there is something wrong with this person because students are supposed
to be outgoing. So, when I see a student who is introverted
whose not who may be studying in the room, but I do not see that I feel no there is something
wrong or if I see a student who is just too boys resent too outgoing, and I say no this
person is just not serious enough about his studies. And that is not right that is where
our personality bias is come in, that you know as a student in India you are supposed
to be endorsed in books and yes, there is a time for fun and play, but you are not supposed
to you know when we were growing up we were not really we know.We were supposed to be our education and entertainment separate and these days we talk about edutainment,
which is a new concept. So, the difference in the behaviors you must have seen yours
teachers cribbing about not I mean we all complain about how our students are though
non-serious our students, are and we are all very pleasantly surprised. When, many of these
non serious apparently non serious students come up with beautiful projects very well
thought out very creative ideas and very well researched work.
And so that is you know we have these personality biases that are eventually shaken up, but
when we start dealing with these students these things do creep into our interactions.
The other bias we have is the situational bias towards self, which is the attribution
of our own behavior to situational factors, when I am assessing others then I say so and
so is personality has this floor or so and so personality is in this manner different
from what it should be like, but when it is me I say the situations are to blame.
I am and this is a general tendency for all of us this is a means of self preservation
in some ways, but this is a general tendency. So, we have a situational bias towards self
I am not the one responsible, it is my environment it is my situation that is responsible and
all of these things creep into the way in which we design our messages. I am giving
you all this information, so you know what is, in fact really affecting the way we design our messages. We also have a bias towards groups, we explain
the behavior of members of highly stereotyped out groups the word there should be groups,
we do not belong to differently than the behavior of in group members. Such as, our own friends
associates or ethnic groups, so out groups are the groups that are not that we do not
belong to that are very very different that are stereotypically very different from the
group that we belong to and that are outside of our immediate frame of reference.
So, for example, doctors for a teacher of communication doctors is a highly stereotyped
out group very respectable very noble professional doctors are supposed to be very intelligent.
Of course, there is there’s a lot of merit to that otherwise they do not get into medical
colleges, but we slot people into a different category we say all lawyers are supposed to
be experts in communication, in negotiations, in conflict management.
And the more you know about lawyers you will realize that they are also, we are also think
that they are experts at research. So, we explain their behaviors because of we have
a bias towards these groups and we explain the behaviors of our out group members very
differently from our in group members, when we talk about the our in groups in groups
are your family your community your professional group here when I am here I say my in group
is IIT Kharagpur, so even if I have differences of opinion here within this campus with someone
when I am outside we’re part of the same family. So, when I am in here my in group is Vinod
Gupta school of management or the faculty in communication or the faculty in behavioral
and sciences, but when I am out of this these four walls of the campus then my in group
is the faculty at IIT Kharagpur, and you know when I am here in Bengal my in group is Punjabi.
So, all Punjabis I will be close to, so these are the groups that we can affiliate with
and this is something we had talked about in the class, when we discussed the differences
the things that make us different and the things that decide or help us define our identities.
We attribute the positive behavior by in group members to their personal dispositions, while
negative behavior is explained in terms of situational factors. And this is something
that has been proven by research when it comes to our in group members, we say that everything
they do nicely is because of their personal characteristics. While, their negative behavior
he is explained in terms of situational factor, somebody else is responsible because we feel
that we are connected, so it is again a means of self-preservation.
When, I say self it is not only me it is also the group I belong to, and if it is me or
the group I belong to I want to defend them or myself and I say well. Whatever, they did
if it is a negative experience they were not at fault something around them that they could
not control was at fault. In case of out group members positive behavior is explained as
situationally produced, while negative behavior is seen as the product of personality or group
culture. So, when we talk about the out group members
the positive behavior that we have is the positive behavior expressed by them is attributed
to situational factors, if somebody else or something in their environment must have been
going. And their negative behavior is assumed to be a function of their personality or the
group culture, these people do things this way all doctors come home late.
All doctors have late hours that is not true, but we say well if it is a doctor and if the
doctor cannot make it to a party maybe this person is a workaholic, all doctors are workaholics.
So, you know if I am if I have I am friends with some doctor and the doctor is usually
late for some social event I say doctors or the doctors do things this way and
so and so is a workaholic. So, it is like the personality or the groups
culture, because the person is a doctor the person is not been able to come. If the person
was may be a teacher the person would have taken time out, you know or adjusted hours,
but because the person is doctor the person is not able to take time out. So, we do these
things and we have other biased and that is how we design our messages when we are dealing
with these people or when we are dealing with others when we refer to these people. So, when we make references to people of our
in group we design our messages differently and when we make references to people in the
out groups or in the groups that we are not a part of we design messages differently.
We also have a bias towards cultures and we will talk about this more when we talk about
high and low context cultures, in individualistic cultures behavior is usually attributed to
individual personality characteristics. And in collectivistic cultures even individual
behavior is usually attributed to situational factors, and I will discuss more about this
when we talk about high and low context cultures and how these are very different. So, I just
want you to think about these things, and why this must be happening and I will come
back to you to these things in another class. Now, because of all these things I am sure
you must have realized the importance of context in competence, we talked about what competence
meant, competence is the effectiveness we discussed that. Competence is how effective
or how well you are able to send your message across putting it very, very crudely, some
things about context and competence one meaning and information are socially constructed.
We decide the environment that we function in our intra and interpersonal contexts, decide
what we interpret as the meaning of a situation and what we communicate to other people. So,
the meaning that we transmit the meaning we received the meaning we make out of situations
is socially constructed and the information is also socially constructed believe me there
is nothing called as hard facts. Hard facts from whose point of view, there
is some person recording those hard facts, if there is a human being involved the information
will be constructed socially, and I will talk about this in a minute. We also discussed
Berlo’s SMCR model please, remember that a communicators competence is a function of
the interpretation of the message by the receiver of the message.
A message designed in and carrying characteristics of the senders intra and interpersonal context,
the sender’s reasons for designing the message in a certain manner and the sender’s reasons
for choosing the channel used to send the message. And the receiver’s interpretation
of why the message was designed the way it was designed, and why the channel selected
was selected and the receiver’s intra and interpersonal context in which the message
is interpreted. This may seem like a lot of things, but this
is really you know whatever is coming to us is always enveloped in something, we talk
about Bhakti in it is the emotional volitional aspect of the message that gives it its meaning.
Only content can be transmitted meanings cannot that is what good saint said and we talked
about that earlier. So, you know it is the environment, it is our interpretation of the environment that gives the message it is meaning, it is virtually impossible to remove all traces of context, preconceived notions, scripts. And biases from any message designed and or
interpreted by a human being please take my word for it and if you think very, very deeply
you will realize that this is really true. You cannot remove the context from the message
it is just impossible, if a human being is a not that is the case of course, mission
to mission then things are simpler and those of you who program things would probably agree
with me. There is only one way of doing things, but
when we are talking to human beings or when we are interpreting things there are a million
ways in which we send a message or interprets a message, with machines we have only one
way if we do it is slightly in another manner the machine interprets it differently. So,
you know there are very clear-cut instructions as to how to go about sending particular messages,
and if you think about those things you will realize that that this is really, really true. Let us talk about communicative competence
in the business environment, I told you about the history of communicative competence, I
told you when it was studied who started studying it. I also told you how it was people began
to study about inter-about communicative competence and how people would trained in communicative
competence. So, let us now move to, let us revise a little
bit squires 2001 talked about what managers do? How do managers do? What they do? And
what affects managers do? And how they do? What they do? And I had told you about these
things, so just think about these things. The nature of managerial work is such that
there is a remarkable similarity in management jobs most management jobs are very, very alike,
there are jobs in today’s workplace cluster around core management roles. The jobs in
today’s work place are clustered around core management roles, which are typically interpersonal,
informational and decisional. And this is from Henry Mintz berg’s paper called the nature
of the managerial work, and the source of this is the book on management communication
by Rourke and Singh I had shown you that book earlier. Management skills required by managers are
technical skills which are most valuable at the entry-level they are less valuable at
more senior levels, because you are supposed to have internalized them by then. Their relating
skills which are very valuable across the managerial careers span and conceptual skills,
which are least valuable at the entry-level and more valuable at the more senior levels,
so the relating skills is what we are really, really talking about here. We are talking about how we interact with
the others who help us in our work, communication is invention, we talked about the creation
of meaning through communication, managers create meaning through communication. You
get data you get information from people and then you make some sense out of it and act
accordingly, managers figure things out by talking about them as much as they talk about
the things they have already figured out think about this. I will leave you to interpret this talk is
the work here is a research has demonstrated then that managers across industries spend
75 percent of their time in verbal interaction, and this includes one on one, or face-to-face,
telephone conversation, video teleconferencing, presentation to small groups public speaking
to larger audiences. So, you know it just I mean and these are the some of the things,
it includes there are lots more. Lark in a paper on communicating change talked about
said that deep down managers believe, that they are communicating effectively. In ten years of management consulting, we
have never had a manager say to us that he or she was a poor communicator. They admit
to the occasional screw-up, but overall everyone without exception believes that he or she
is basically a good communicator. So, then what is the need, why do we need
to have this class? Why do you need to learn about communication? And I will tell you that
in a minute this is because the industry is facing a problem there are various studies
over the years that say, that prove that there are recruitment concerns, there are training
concerns, there are performance concerns. We all believe that we are excellent communicators,
but according to the industry, according to the people who hire you, according to the
people who train you, according to the people who assess your work.
You, these people feel that management graduates just do not know how to use the skills they
claim to have you say yes, I am good with finance, I am good with marketing, I am good
at convincing people, I am good at this I am good at that, but you are not able to convince
the people you deal with. So, they feel that management graduates just do not know how
to use the skills they claim to have, you claim to be able to do a b and c, but you
are not able to convince the people who are affected by what you claim to do. And they are frustrated and these people in
the industry what are business schools teaching their students these days. Intercultural Communication
Competence is an impression that behavior is appropriate and effective in a given context
this is the reason why we need to study intercultural communication competence. Business communication
competence and within business I think I have already made a case for why intercultural
communication is such an integral part of business.
So, let us talk about intercultural communication competence, according to Spitz Berg inter
cultural communication competence, is an impression that behavior is appropriate and effective
in a given context. Appropriateness means that the values, norms and that the valued
rules norms and expectancies of the relationship are not violated significantly, effectiveness
is the accomplishment of valued goals or rewards, relative to costs and alternatives. So, appropriateness
is the fitness of any type of communication in the situation, how well does the type of
communication fit into this situation or how well has the communication happened, and effectiveness is how well has the goal of the communication been achieved. Communication that is inappropriate and ineffective
is of course, completely low quality communication that is appropriate, but ineffective suggests
the social chameleon, who does nothing but also accomplishes no personal objectives through
interaction. So, somebody whose socially very right, but eventually the type of work that
this person does is really not worth anything. Communication that is inappropriate, but effective
would include such behaviors as lying, cheating, stealing and others socially inappropriate
behaviors that get the work done, but the messages that are clearly ethically problematic.
So, there could be ethical issues there could also be some social norms issues you know
you talk about people who are experts at their work so and so is the excellent in at work,
but when you come to the social skills the person just does not know how to behave. So, we have such people in our environments,
wherever we go and things could be ethically morally also wrong that are not really fitting
in, and this is according to Spitzberg 1994. Spitzberg proposed an integrative model of intercultural competence, and I will try and cover this entire model in this class, and
let me just show you this model according to this model there are two people in the
interaction. There is an actor and the co-actor not a sender and a receiver, it is the actor
and the co-actor and if you see this part of the slide is a mirror this part of the
slide is a mirror image of this part it is just slightly up here.
So, this shows that there is some sort of difference some moment in the communication
motivation, reward personal objectives and goals and anxiety, there are skills there
are knowledge functions and there are outcomes. As far as the co-actors there is an episode
in which the interaction takes place, and based on all of these things these skills
come into picture and the composure interaction management or the centrism and effectiveness
of communication is sent out into the communication episode and it feeds into the co-actors environment.
So, just study this part and I will explain this part in the future slides just take a
minute to read this entire model, and this model is from a book that I had shown you
in the first class. And this is the book right here, this is a model that I had scanned and
put up on the slide and this is the book intercultural communication a reader seventh edition by Larry Samovar and Richard potter. So, this is a very good book and it is a collection
of research articles and I suggest if you can find this book or a later edition you
must buy it, so just take a minute to study this slide. In the model portrays the process of dyadic
interaction as a function of two individuals motivation to communication knowledge of communication, in that context and skills in implementing their motivation and knowledge. So, according to Spitzberg there are three factors, there are three things that influence how well a person or how well the relational communication happens. The first factor here is motivation,
whether you want to communicate are not what makes you communicate with person x knowledge
of communication in that context, what must you do to communicate with that person in
that situation. And the skills in implementing their motivation
and knowledge, and how well are you equipped to first tap into your herds to communicate,
and how much do you know about the situation and a person to communicate with them in that
situation. Systems the three systems that is model deals with in relational competence
are the individual system, which is the left part of the slide.
So, this is the individual system the actor, co-actor are treated as individuals, there
is this and the second is the episodic system which is the central part which is the place
where you see the mixture of arrows, and the relational system that includes those components
that assist a person’s competence across the entire span of relationships rather than just
in given episode of interaction. And we will talk about each of the systems
separately the individual system, according to Spitzberg in the individual system as the
communicator motivation increases, the communicative competence increases. As the communicator
and even this has four different parts to it, as the communicator confidence increases
the communicative competence increases. And the confidence of a communicator depends upon
the social anxiety how anxious you are if you’re not anxious you’ll be more confident
and you will be more keen to communicate with the other person the similarity with the situation,
so sameness of the situation. So, if you are unfamiliar to this situation
or unfamiliar to the person you are interacting with then your anxiety could go up these things
are interrelated and that could have a negative impact on your confidence and the importance
or the consequences of the encounter. What will happen in the encounter does not go well?
Consequences are what will what can go wrong, and what will happen if things do not go that
they are supposed to go? The next thing that affects the communicative
motivation is the reward relevant efficacy beliefs, so how well do you relate the reward
to your efficiency and these reward relevant efficacy beliefs can be tasks specific, whether
you think you are good at that task are not and our correlated to familiarity with the
tasks and the context. So, these beliefs, what do I believe about the reward that will
come if the communication is successful, and that depends upon whether I am familiar with
the task and the context in which the task is taking place.
The third thing here is communicator approach disposition, so how what mindset do I approach
the situation in? And then the higher the communicator approach dispositions, the more
keen I am to approach the context the more keen I am to approach the interaction, the
higher my confidence level will be and the more higher my communicative competence will
be. If I feel uncomfortable approaching a situation, I will not my confidence will go
down and that will have a an impact a negative impact on my competence.
The fourth one is relative cost benefit ratio of a situation, this is related to the to
point b, so what is the cost to me what am I losing by going into this situation or how
much effort do I need to put in when I go into this situation and what is the benefit
I get out of it. Now, I will give you my example, when I come into this situation when I decided
to take up this opportunity of recording lectures for the national program on technology enhanced
learning. The cost was clarity in my own subject which
meant I thought I was clear I have been teaching this subject for the fourth time now, and
this is the fourth run of the subject this is my fourth year in teaching. So, I said
I know the subject like the back of my hand and I studied intercultural communication,
and I have been in intercultural situations since 1997 which is about 13 years now, so
you know very highly intercultural situations, so I said well I am an expert.
And I want to try out something new and so as far as I was concerned, when I decided
to apply for this opportunity the cost was not very high I said yes, I have the expertise
and I have the resources to get additional information that I can share with the students
through this course. And so the cost was a lot of work preparing these lectures, because
I knew I would be talking to an empty room, and I do not know if the camera can do this,
but if you are here you would see that I am in my mind I am imagining people sitting on
these chairs I am not really addressing a real class.
And so initially I was a little uncomfortable about the thought of talking to an empty class,
but I knew myself and I said well I know the subject and I will just start talking about
it, and I will imagine I will assume that there is somebody sitting there. The benefit
cost was anxiety cost was work that went into putting the lectures together, cost was reading
up additional stuff cost was additional teaching load, this is additional teaching load.
So, in addition to the administrative tasks that I already have in addition to the teaching
load, that I already have this is additional load. The benefit here is by talking to an
empty class by talking to the audience that I have never met I am forced to clarify concepts
in my mind, before I even present them, I am also forced to come up with very, very
appropriate socially relevant examples. Now, when I am in class my assumption the
first thing I ask my class is can you understand Hindi, my mother tongue is Hindi, Punjabi,
Urdu mixed, so I have a tendency to switch in class I have a tendency to switch from
Hindi to English, English to Hindi once in awhile depending on what I am trying to explain.
I am fluent in all languages, but I have a tendency to go to the colloquial part just
to explain something really well, here I do not know who will be listening to this.
So, once in rarely can I take those examples that I think you will understand in addition
to that if I talk about things specifically Indian I have to make a special effort to
clarify them. In my class if there is an international student sitting I explain it to that student
and move on, but here I have to explain every concept, so that you get a feel of it. So,
the cost and benefit, but the benefit is higher the benefit is the clarity, I will get and
of course, this looks great on my resume no doubt about that you know.
So, this is a good addition to my to my career profile and so you know depending and that
has in turn affected my approach to this, I am keen on experiencing new situation I am not scared of failure. At the most what will happen you will not like this lecture
or the reviewers of this lecture will ask me to redo this part, big deal it is it is
not a lot of it does not put pressure on me it will help me improve my teaching style.
So, I asses what I can gain and what can go wrong and then decide whether to go into a
situation like this. Now, if I were asked to prepare or if I were
asked to present the explanation of Spitz berg’s model in prompt you, without having
a chance to read through it or internalize the concepts to a person who would decide
my promotion I would be apprehensive. I had a chance to revise this, I had a chance to
put in about 6 to 8 hours of reading into preparing this lecture. So, I am comfortable
about it, but and even though I had learnt this I got a chance to prepare for it before
coming to this class, but just imagine if I had to prepare for this before I came for
today’s lecture it would be it would make things more difficult for me. The next thing here is as communicative knowledge
increases, communicative competence decreases. And the things that affect communicative knowledge
are task relevant procedural knowledge, as a person’s exposure to a cultural increases,
his or her stores of relevant subject matters, topics, language, forms and so on, as well
as procedural competencies are likely to increase. This is the first time I am working in a government
organization I have had an experience with private organizations, I have had an experience
with a contract position in a government organization. But, I got this I started teaching in a permanent
role or I got observed as a permanent employee at IIT only about one and a half years ago
and before that I was on contract, but it was more like a permanent thing.
So, this is the first time and initially my interactions were I was quite hesitant and
a lot of times I did things wrong even today I had to redo something, you know redo the
whole procedure and I had to explain that there were confusion. And people said this
is normal here you have done this for the first time and you could have gone wrong,
but I had to redo a couple of things in the past 2 3 days, so the task relevant procedural
knowledge was less. The next time I had to do the same things
I would be more, so there are my familiarity with the procedure, my comfort level with
the procedure, will be better the first time I am lost, I do not know who to contact? I
do not know what to ask them? I do not know. Whether, to let them know that I was confused,
after all I have the rulebook with me, I have the policies and procedures, but it is this
thick fat book and I do not know which section would cover what.
So, I was quite apprehensive and luckily we have are very supportive administrative office,
so every time I have no problem I called them up and they are very kind enough to take calls
my be 20 times a day sometimes. But, you know slowly those things will be I would not be
sounding, so unsure this the other thing that affects communicative competence, the communicative knowledge in that further in turn affects communicative competence is the mastery of
knowledge acquisition strategies in new or different situations.
How do you acquire new knowledge, that is another factor that affects, how you use that
knowledge and how competently you are able to communicate. So, how do you acquire that
knowledge and. So, the mastery of knowledge acquisition strategies is very, very important.
Another thing that affects things your knowledge and the use of your knowledge, communicative
knowledge is the identity and role diversity. And this is something very, very common it
may seem like a strange phrase or a new phrase to you, but just think in your day to day
interactions do not you say so and so has a lot of experience, so and so has widely
travelled so and so has lived in different parts of the country. So, so and so must be
better at communication I have lived in I grew up in Himachal, I lived in Chandigarh,
I have lived in Gujarati, have lived in Delhi, now and I have lived for a little while in
Maharashtra, and now I am living in Bengal for the past two plus years and I have lived
abroad. So, you know taking all these experiences
into account I feel more comfortable, my communicative knowledge has increased and the number of
roles I play, as we grow up from being a daughter or a son you get into playing. The role of
a sibling brother or sister then you have cousins or your immediate siblings who get
married, so you are a brother-in-law or a sister-in-law and then they have children,
so you become a brother or an aunt or an uncle or somebody’s grandson or granddaughter.
And you are somebody’s niece or nephew, these are the personal relationships, work wise
or professionally you are a student and in your school, you could be the team leader
you could be the group captain you could be the sports leader, you could be the class
monitor. So, these are different hats that we all wear and the larger the greater the
number of hats, you were at one time or the greater the types of hats you have worn during your life the better you get it communicating in with different situations.
The better you are at knowing what to do, when you are given a new role to play and then you go out and work you know, and then when you grow up you travel you get an admission
into a different college in a different city. So, you become a traveler and there you have
to act all smart your first journey just think of the first journey you undertook, did you
not find yourself referring to your experiences with your parents.
And how they dealt with say the tea vendor or the person who brought you know the first
time you tried negotiating or bargaining in the market, so did you not refer to your experience
with your parents the way you saw them doing things and then you developed your own styles something that they did may not work in a situation that is different. So, you develop your own style, and you start doing something’s that are similar to your past experiences
and some things that are very, very unique to you as a person and to your specific environment.
And that is what we mean by identity and role diversity the diversity of experiences each one of us goes through, and the diversity of roles each one of us plays and that is
why I keep insisting that intercultural communication is inevitable in today’s world. Because, the number and the quality or the types of experiences that we go through are very, very different
in today’s world and everybody brings with them, this diversity this plethora of experiences
to the table when they interact with each other and every experience; however, small
teaches you something. The next thing is knowledge dispositions,
which is possessing information and knowing how to analyze and process that information,
it is not only having information that is what I talked about a little while ago. When,
the manager say that you all have you have a nice degree from an IIT or an IIM or some
NIT, these days NIT’s are doing excellent work they are under the radar, but they do
excellent work. And so you have a nice degree or you have worked with the person, who is
known for the quality of his or her work, so people say you bring all these credentials. And then we when you start expressing your knowledge they are not, so sure about your competence, so another thing in the individual system is as communicative skills increase, communicative competence increases. Now, in addition to
our knowledge, in addition to our confidence we in addition to our motivation, we also
have skills because these are the three things that we talked about earlier.
And as far as our skills are concerned communication skills are concerned, these depend upon conversational
alter centrism the you have heard of the term egocentric, which means I mean myself focus
on me alone, but when I talk about alter centrism. Alter means the other and centrism means to
focus upon the other, and this is the responsiveness to the other person, and in a country like
you know I find myself referring back to high and low context cultures, then I forget that I have not talked to you about those, but I will soon enough.
So, in collectivistic cultures in community oriented cultures, where you are a part of
a community where you are very relationship oriented in rural areas, especially or in
semi urban areas in traditional cultures, we have a tendency to focus on the other person
mentally, but do we do that in our conversations. So, as the conversational alter centrism increases,
the communicative it adds to the competence level, but only up to a certain level if you
totally alter centric then it backfires. So, there has to be a balance conversational
coordination, conversational coordination is all those behaviors that assist in the
smooth flow of an inter interactional encounter. So, how well do you coordinate the next thing process, I think I talked about next thing, next thing is what happens next in any communication
situation. What do you say that that enables that motivates or that stimulates the receiver
of your message to respond in a manner that you want that person to respond to, and coordination
is how well do you fit in this next thing with the other person’s next thing process.
So, how well do you fit in both your next thing processors how smooth or how clear that
chain of communication events is, the third thing here is conversational composure, which is your calmness and confidence during conversation. How composed are you jerky, are you always over reacting too happy, too sad or are you just dull like this. So, calmness and composure is another thing I mean do you face yourself do you have a consistent flow of energy, if its depending on where you are if you are on the stage you may need to have a larger
amount of energy. If you are talking to people who are if you are sitting down the mode of energy is less, if I was sitting down and teaching, this lecture I would probably not be moving around so much. I would not be able to and I would not be
moving my hand so much, but because I am standing I am expected to have a larger amount of energy.
So, that is one and so this is the I mean what how well do you appear to be calm and composed during your conversation. The last thing here is conversational adaptation
which is altering and balancing self’s goals and intentions to those of the other person,
not the extremes of alter centrism or egocentrism. Conversational adaptation, which means how
well do you balance egocentric and alter centric behavior, how well are you able to balance
the focus on yourself and your focus on the other during a conversation, it should not
be totally egocentric I should not try and bring every conversation to myself.
At the same time I should not take all my conversation and focus completely on the other
person, that results in a the other person’s perception or interpretation on my behavior
as being either submissive or having low self worth or low self esteem. Again this depends
on the situation, but there has to be a balance you know all this is done in a context it
has to be in a context, it has to be in line with the goals of the context, it has to be
in-line with your goals with the receivers goals.
So, it is all this big mucky mess you know this chaos of ideas and concepts and factors
constantly influencing the message. It is not a smooth flow it is not like you know
electricity travelling from one end of the wire to the other end it is not like that
it is a complete it has to be done in a manner, that you know there is a smooth flow, but
all these flows are influenced by so many things. It is like trying to send a beam of light through and not opaque, but a translucent
fluid, so it spreads out the light sort of spreads out it is not smooth, it is like there
are things you know the color of lights changes. And you have a beam of white light and your
trying to send a beam of white light through a translucent fluid and there is some spreading
some dispersion of the light and yes, eventually it reaches where it is supposed to reach.
If it is strong enough, but there is some amount of coloring in it, so that is what
conversational adaptation is how well do you balance your focus this is sorry, the example
of the light travelling through a translucent fluid was appropriate for the context. That
is how the context affects your conversation? That is how the context affects a message?
And conversational adaptation is the navigation through that translucent fluid, and the strength
of that beam of light. I want you to think about two things, now
till your next class, and in the next class we will complete the discussion about communicative
competence, but for the next class before the next class I want you to think about two
points here. First I want you to identify your own biases and identify how you attribute
your experiences with your in group and out group members.
So, I want you to think about how you shape your messages in your in group, I want you
to think about how you shape your messages with your out group and what affects the way
you shape these messages. I also want you to identify what makes you tick as a communicator,
I want to introspect and list the intrapersonal factors that motivate you to keep going in
your interactions in different situations. So, these are your tasks these are the questions
for this class and I want you to think about these things, and discuss them with your friends
and I will give you some more food for thought in the next class.
Thank you.

One thought on “Mod-01 Lec-04 Communicative Competence – II

  1. great work mam, touching the unknown students in the planet earth and kicking new beautiful thoughts in their mind. Salute to you !

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