انواع پهلوانان ایرانی


An Iranian hero (Pahlevan) is a mythical imaginary character that, with his outstanding actions and adventures, becomes an ideal person and for people who identifies with them he becomes a role model. In Iranian civilization there are many heroes who are undoubtedly superior to all other civilizations. Although there are many different kinds of Iranian heroes, they can be divided into categories with each one representing a certain character with a special structure and function. The first category includes king-heroes. They are organizers, justice-makers and saviors and are called liberators, glorious and great. Like Jamshid, they are usually great famous kings or founders of kingdoms. The second category belongs to martyr heroes. They are characters who are killed unjustly in their youth and, like Sohrab and Siavash, their death is always sad and painful In the third category are Adventurer-heroes. With their long journeys and various adventures, they gain physical or spiritual power. And like Sandbad and Garshasb, their life is tied to journeys. The forth category belongs to warrior-heroes. These great commanders are usually tribal leaders or heads of families. They take part in various battles and because of their courage in the battlefields there are many legends around them. A good example is Kaveh, the Blacksmith. And the last ones are anti-heroes. They are courageous warriors, but unpopular because of their cruelty and their connection with devil. They are opposites of heroes in terms of morality or in battlefields and like Afrasiab and Zahak, almost all of them are non-Iranians. The actions of these five categories of heroes are connected with battle. But there are two other types of champions that are not usually connected to combats. They are prophets or holy figures who are respected because of their connection with the holy forces and the other group are called lovers who are well-known for being persistent in love and enduring the hardship of love. Along with these seven categories of mythical characters, there is another group called Super-heroes who has incorporated the elements and features of all these categories. Rostam and Esfandyar are the only characters in this category. As the heroes are role models for individuals, Super-heroes strengthens the collective identity. Each hero has friends, relatives and enemies and their stories are formed and narrated symbolically and mythically around these people, therefore, history takes imaginative form. This mythical history, considers the desired situation, rather than emphasizing the present condition. and regardless of the boundaries of the historical evidence, with the help of artistic and literary imagination and creativity usually creates a more popular and effective version of the real history of a civilization.

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